Thick sea ice has hampered researchers’ plans to explore life under the Antarctic ice shelf. Last July, when the larsen C iceberg was hit by a breakthrough, the sudden exposure to undersea life was delayed because it tried to navigate through the floating ice, some of which were 5 meters thick. The ship, still 400 kilometers long, was canceled by captain James clark Ross on February 28.
“This is the natural way to defeat us,” said Katrin Linse, lead researcher and Marine biologist at the British Antarctic survey, in video, released on March 2nd. “We know the task is high-risk and highly rewarding.”
But not everything was lost and the ship is now heading towards the nearby larsen A ice shelf, where an iceberg disappeared in 1995. There, researchers will study a deep-seabed ecosystem that has never been explored at 1,000 meters beneath the surface of the ocean.
However, Linse will have another chance to visit Larsen C. She will join the 2019 expedition led by Alfred Wegener institute in Bremen, Germany.
The new target
The researchers went to the iceberg A68, which was separated from the larsen C ice shelf last July. But it was about 400 kilometers from the destination, forcing researchers to change direction. Marine biologist Katrin Linse said at A news conference on March 2 that they were traveling through relatively ice-free waters to the larsen A ice shelf, A huge iceberg in 1995. After this breakthrough, no biological expedition inspected the bottom of the sea. “We’re excited about the deep-sea creatures we might find. ”
A new type of battery can be placed in a cold environment.
The rechargeable battery is also generates an electrical charge, minus 70 degrees Celsius under this temperature, for many of today’s mobile phones, electric vehicles and other equipment typical lithium ion power battery will not work. The batteries that weather this cold condition can help build electronic devices that run on some of the coldest places on earth or cruise around other planets.
Inside the lithium ion battery, ions flow between the positive and negative poles, and the ions are embedded in them and then released to return to the other end through a substance called electrolyte. As the temperature drops, the ions move slowly through the electrolyte. Cold also makes it harder for ions to pass through the electrolyte. Xiao lidong, co-author of a study on battery researchers at fudan university in Shanghai, explained that ions must fall off to fit electrode materials.
This cold condition reduces the efficiency of conventional lithium-ion batteries. When to 40 ° C, these cells can provide about 12% of the electricity at room temperature; When – 70 ° C, they don’t work.
The new battery, which describes the online joule on February 28, contains a special electrolyte that allows ions to flow easily between cold electrodes. The researchers also installed electrodes made from organic compounds for their batteries, rather than typical materials rich in transition metals. Ions can place themselves in this organic material without stripping the electrolyte material attached to it. So these organic electrodes are more likely to capture and release ions than those in normal batteries, even at low temperatures.
Because the ions at low temperature flow better and more easily connected to the electrode, so even under – 70 ℃, the battery charge also maintain its room temperature around 70% of capacity
Of the university of California, San Diego, a materials scientist Shirley said Meng, the design of new cells compared with standard lithium ion battery, its energy consumption per gram is less, but was not involved in the work. She wanted to see if she could make a more energy-dense version of the battery.