Fishing has left a huge footprint on the earth. Researchers reported in the February 23 issue of the journal science that the oceans cover more than two-thirds of the earth’s surface in 2016, with industrial fishing taking place at 55 percent of the area. By comparison, only 34 percent of the earth’s land is used for agriculture or herding.
The previous effort to quantify global fishing relied on a large number of data from electronic monitoring systems, logs and shipboard observers from ships. But for the past 15 years, most commercial ships have been equipped with an automatic identification system (AIS) transceiver, a tracking system designed to help ships avoid collisions.
The researchers examined 22 billion AIS positions from 2012 to 2016. Using a machine-learning computer, the team identified more than 70,000 fishing boats and tracked their activities.
The team found that most of the fishing was concentrated in countries’ exclusive economic zones – about 370 kilometers off the coast of a country – and some hot spots off the high seas. These hotspots include the nutrient-rich upwelling areas of the North-East Atlantic and South America and west Africa.
Astonishingly, five countries, including China, Spain, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea, account for nearly 85 per cent of fishing on the high seas, outside the country’s exclusive economic zone.
Tracking the fishing footprint of space and time can help guide Marine conservation and international conservation efforts, the researchers said. This may be particularly important in a period of rapid change due to rising ocean temperatures and increased human activity on the high seas.
Although the human heart transplant drama has captured the public interest, the kidney transplant is far ahead in this field. Although there are only three surviving liver transplants for young girls, the liver is a promising alternative… . The donor must, of course, be dead; No one can live without his liver. – science news, March 2, 1968.
Kidney patients can accept the organs of family members, and the one-year survival rate in 1968 is as high as 75%. Liver recipients are less fortunate and have to rely on unrelated posthumous contributions. The liver’s immune system often attacks new organs, with a one-year survival rate low to 30%. The immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, which has been available since 1983, has played a big role. Today, about 75 percent of adults survive three years after surgery, and the children are even better. The liver is still a necessary organ, and the need for a donor liver has risen. Today, these options have expanded, including a liver separation transplant and a partial transplant of a living donor.